100 Best Books for an Education

A Revision and Update of Will Durant's 100 Best Books for an Education

Note 21


Biblical Chronology: A Solution that Makes Sense

The First Temple in Jerusalem


All dates below use the proleptic Gregorian calendar and are approximate prior to the formation of the Hebrew kingdoms in 931 B.C.E. Some dates after 931 B.C.E. are also approximate particularly as they concern the composition of certain works.

    Recently it has become very clear that the Bible was created using the “supplementary” hypothesis, as espoused by John Van Seters, Tzemah Yoreh, et al. Yoreh believes the original nucleation point for the Bible was the Book of E; however, at present the scholarly consensus is to defer to the Book of J as the original kernel which further author/editors supplemented and this assertion is accepted here. Once the Book of J is composed, every further author/editor more or less supplements this until the finished product is the Enneateuch* of the Holy Bible that we have today. Our present chronology largely adapts (not adopts!) Yoreh’s findings vis-à-vis the breakdown and chronology of the biblical text. In his own words:


     At its most basic level this theory suggests that the way in which Biblical narrative    evolved was one of successive additions upon one original and complete text in order to make the text relevant to a new audience of readers—an organic procedure in a culture where the written word was respected, and revelation revered. Each stage of composition was a complete and

* Ed. Note: This is a clumsy term I have created to describe the part of the Bible that describes the history of Israel from creation through the Babylonian Exile (586 B.C.E.), i.e. the books of Genesis-II Kings. Scholars have traditionally called the first part the “Pentateuch” or five books, which the Jews refer to as the Torah. However since the work in Hebrew is divided into nine books I use the term Enneateuch. It is the great national history/epic of the Jews beginning with Creation and culminating with the Babylonian Exile, and many author/editors contributed to its shaping.


cohesive work. . . . Each successive supplementation respected the received text and only added to it, the only erasures were accidental.


Simplifying Assumption 1. Prior to 931 B.C.E., the Bible is myth or a mixture of myth and history that is termed legend. For example, the Bible states that there were “430” years of sojourn in Egypt and “480” years between the Exodus and the commencement of Solomon’s Temple in Jerusalem. These numbers we must reject as purely mythical.*

The years from the First Temple to the Second number exactly 480. . . . The period from Abraham’s departure from Ur to the Exodus was 480 years and from the Exodus to the First Temple was 480 years. The Hebrew chroniclers were evidently seeking symmetry, not accuracy. Scholars now believe that the reigns of the monarchy period were stretched to make them conform to the 480-year span . . . and that the Greek translators of the Septuagint, when they learned from Manetho’s recently published (280 B.C.E.?) Aegyptiaca of the early date of the first Egyptian king Menes, lengthened the lives of the patriarchs to make Hebrew history antedate the Egyptians.”

Almost certainly, “480” represents 12 generations (480/40 = 12), and by the same reasoning, “430” represents between 10 and 11 generations. In addition, the life of “Moses” clearly follows this symmetrical/legendary plan, and therefore almost all serious scholars reject its numbering.

However, the anchor point for all biblical scholarship is the consensus opinion that the one absolute synchronism between Egyptian and biblical chronology is the invasion of Judah in 925 B.C.E. by “Shishak” i.e. Pharaoh Sheshonq I of the 22nd dynasty.

Simplifying Assumption 2. The Bible uses a “fractional” calendar. A civil year consists of just over 365 days. However, the Bible does not use this year until each of the Israelite kingdoms adopts its own calendar. Prior to that, a “year” in the Old Testament consists of approximately 6 months with a “New Year” in the spring and one in the fall. Hence, there were two years in every 365-day civil calendar going back at least to the time of Abraham.

    According to current dogma, those Stone Age and Bronze Age peoples who survived infancy (approximately 1 in 3) lived to an average age of 45-50 and had their families at an average age of 25-30.§ In ancient times, people reached adulthood at about thirteen. The Bar Mitzvah ceremony is a commemoration of a boy’s reaching manhood at this age; the Bat Mitzvah is of a girl’s reaching the age of twelve. At this age in ancient times, society expected one to marry, procreate, and support a family. Hence, we find in biblical genealogies “men” having children shortly after reaching thirteen by our form of reckoning.

    Another thing to keep in mind is the concept of “historical telescoping” whereby the compression of time, generations, or events occurs when relating a history; anything irrelevant to the story, including many generations, get compressed or deleted to keep the story relevant. As an example, the Bible states that between Levi, the brother of Joseph, and Moses, there elapsed only “four” generations, but

* These numbers are “idealized figures very typical of the epic tradition.” See Cyrus H. Gordon and Gary A. Rendsburg, The Bible and the Ancient Near East, New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1997, 112. They are schematic numbers i.e. mystical numbers that the ancients perceived to be religiously significant. They were not real numbers. Scholarship falls into error when assuming they were.

Stahl, William H., “Chronology,” Reviewed by Edward L. Ochsenschlager, Encyclopedia Americana, Grolier Online http://ea.grolier.com.ezproxy.spl.org:2048/article?id=0093480-00 (accessed April 9, 2016).

The calendars for reckoning the years of kings in Judah and Israel were offset by six months, that of Judah starting in Tishri (in the fall) and that of Israel in Nisan (in the spring).” 

§ See Gordon and Rendsburg for an informative discussion on Ancient Near Eastern generational times and their conclusion that the average generational time was probably in this range.

between Joseph and Joshua, Moses’ successor, it gives “ten.” Historical telescoping is here at work i.e. Joshua did not immediately follow Moses as his successor.

Simplifying Assumption 3. This chronology is based on the one extensively developed by Richard A. Parker in TheCalendars of Ancient Egypt. Parker’s once famous, but now somewhat maligned, chronology of Egypt has recently received scientific confirmation in the form of detailed radiocarbon test results.* Radiocarbon studies have conclusively proven that the 18th dynasty/New Kingdom was founded between 1570-1544 B.C.E. Using known astronomical dates it is clear that the twelfth dynasty was founded in 1991 B.C.E., as proven by Parker. Supplementing Parker, Gary Greenberg’s decryption of Manetho’s Aegyptiaca has accurately filled in the reign lengths from many periods in Egyptian history—particularly of the 18th dynasty.

    Almost all Egyptologists agree that the 12th dynasty ended in 1785 B.C.E. and Greenberg relates that according to Manetho the 13th dynasty did begin in this year. Following his decryption, we know that the 13th was followed by 16th, which was in turn followed by 17th all reigning in Upper Egypt. The 14th dynasty of minor Hyksos ruled from XoÏs in the delta and was followed by the 15th dynasty or “Great Hyksos,” which conquered Memphis and ruled part of Upper Egypt in addition to the entire delta. The Turin King List states that this dynasty reigned for 108 years, and Greenberg avers that the 14th started 86 years earlier. Additionally, Manetho/Greenberg state that there were 72 years between Ahmose I’s accession and the accession of Thutmose III, 131 years between him and Akhenaton’s accession and 59 years between Akhenaton’s accession and Seti I’s. This agrees remarkably well with William McMurray’s astronomical findings that according to the Egyptian lunar calendar Seti I may very well have begun his reign in 1301 B.C.E.


Year B.C.E.


Age or Period

3 June 3123

The 5.2-kiloyear event occurs when an asteroid strikes the Earth. A worldwide tree ring event/ice core acidity peak results from major volcanic eruptions resulting from the impact. This begins the Piora Oscillation, which leads to an abrupt and very large-scale climatic event one of which is “Noah’s” Flood. This is a massive regional flood in North Africa/Fertile Crescent/Aegean ending the Jemdet Nasr period in Mesopotamia and the corresponding “antediluvian” kings, submerging the Souss-Massa plain in SW Morocco (the fall of “Atlantis” myth), and is remembered as the flood of Deucalion.

Early Bronze Age II 


Jushur founds the Kish I dynasty of Sumer, which unites the many city-states “after the flood.”§


* See Christopher Bronk Ramsey et al., Radiocarbon-Based Chronology for Dynastic Egypt, Science vol. 328:1554-1557, 18 June 2010.

The following colors indicate regions: Blue: Lower Mesopotamia, Red: Egypt, Bold: Assyria, Plum Red: Kingdom of Judah/biblical history, Electric Blue: Kingdom of Israel, Green: Syria/Palestine.

In Greek mythology, Deucalion is the grandson of Japetus; the Old Testament has Japetus being a son of Noah. “The 2nd century writer Lucian gave an account of the Greek Deucalion in De Dea Syria that seems to refer more to the Near Eastern flood legends: in his version, Deucalion whom he also calls Sisythus took his children, their wives, and pairs of animals with him on the ark, and later built a great temple in Manbij northern Syria, on the site of the chasm that received all the waters; he further describes how pilgrims brought vessels of sea water to this place twice a year, from as far as Arabia and Mesopotamia, to commemorate this event” and that “the flood of Deucalion ended the First Bronze Age” in Greek mythology. Wikipedia editors, article “Deucalion,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deucalion (accessed July 2, 2010).

§ The Chronicle of the Single Monarchy, a Mesopotamian historical text, uses units that are decrypted as follows: from Kish I until the accession of Dumuzid, the immediate predecessor of Gilgamesh, Mesopotamian rulers count a week as a year; from Dumuzid until the Akkadian dynasty, reigns are counted using lunar months; from the Founding of the Akkadian dynasty civil years are counted.



Naram-Sin (biblical “Nimrod”) becomes king of Akkad.



Destruction of the Temple of Enlil at Nippur (Fall of the “Tower of Babel”).



Canaanites begin settling in Egypt in great numbers in 12th dynasty pharaoh Amenemhat III’s reign.* They borrow a simplified alphabet from the Egyptians, modify it for their own Canaanite language, and transmit it to Canaan/Syria.



Founding of 1st (Amorite) dynasty of Babylon.



13th Egyptian dynasty founded at Itj-tawy.



Dynasty 14 founded at Xoïs in the Nile delta (comprising minor Hyksos pharaohs). “Second Intermediate Period” in Egypt begins.

Middle Bronze Age II


Hammurabi of the 1st dynasty of Babylon ascends the throne. Abraham is born in Urfa in present-day SE Turkey.



Iscah is born; Haran, father of Iscah and Lot and brother of Abraham, dies in Urfa, and Abraham and family leave (perhaps deposed?) to the city of Haran.



“Chedorlaomer” begins rule of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboiim, and Zoar.



With his brother Nahor remaining behind, Abraham and family leave Haran, and enter Canaan (Gen. 12:1-3, 7)  then under Mesopotamian domination. It is there perhaps that he acquires the epithet “the Hebrew” signifying “immigrant” from the Canaanite word ‘ebher “(from the) region on the other or opposite side.” Abraham then emigrates and enters Egypt as a famine begins. A 14th dynasty (Hyksos) pharaoh (Sheshi?) marries Iscah.§



Five kings of Canaan rebel against their overlords. Four kings—Amraphel (Hammurabi?), Arioch of “Ellasar” (Eri-Aku of Larsa?), Chedorlaomer of “Elam,” (Kudur-Lagamur of Elam?) and Tidal (Tudhulu son of Gazza king of the Hittites?)defeat the 5 kings, and capture Lot the brother of Sarah. Abraham, in command of a detachment of Sheshi’s land forces, defeats Chedorlaomer, freeing Canaan from Mesopotamian domination, and rescues Lot. Abraham meets Melchizedek, king of Salem (Jerusalem). Hammurabi dies shortly thereafter.*


* James B. Pritchard, ed. Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1955; Supplement 1969, 229-30.

It is with Abraham that biblical mythology gives way to biblical legend, and we shall assume that the major legends are true in essence, imaginative in detail. Abraham, if we cut through the mass of mythology surrounding him, was, as biblically attested, some sort of merchant-prince; whether that meant he had royal ties or was just very wealthy, we presently cannot say with certainty.

Abraham may well have composed these verses at this time, and may have earlier conceived of the doctrine of monotheism. Polytheism is the belief in and worship of many gods; monolatry is the belief in many gods, but the exclusive worship of one god; monotheism is the belief in and exclusive worship of one god. The Bible makes clear that he is the first (historical figure) to believe so, and we may provisionally accept this as fact. In any case, his God calls him to leave Haran and to enter Canaan, and he obeys.

§ At this time, she probably acquired the name “Sarah” which means “princess.” By all indications, Sheshi was the most powerful ruler of this dynasty.

* James B. Parkinson, Resolving Chronology of the 2nd Millennium B.C. Parkinson has “Amraphel” dying shortly after the Battle of Siddim. For the identification of “Amraphel” with Hammurabi click here.



Destruction of Sodom; Sarah gives Hagar to Abraham.



Ishmael is born to Abraham and Hagar.



Isaac is born to Sheshi and Sarah in Egypt.



After Sheshi’s death, Abraham attempts to sacrifice Isaac, is prevented, and then leaves Egypt with Ishmael to become governor of Canaan.§



Sarah dies; Isaac marries Rebecca, a Canaanite woman living in Egypt.



Abraham marries Keturah in Canaan and their children, along with Ishmael’s, form the core of the “Midianites.”



Dynasty 15 (“The Great Hyksos”) conquers Memphis and rules Northern and Middle Egypt. Salitis/Shamuqenu is the first “Great Hyksos” pharaoh reigning from Avaris.

Middle Bronze Age III


Jacob is born to Isaac and Rebecca in Egypt.



Yakubhar/Aper-Anati (Beon) reigns from Avaris.



Abraham dies in Canaan.



16th Egyptian dynasty (Hyksos vassals) founded at Thebes.



Sakirhar reigns from Avaris.



Jacob leaves for Haran (in the aftermath of the Thiran eruption?)



13th dynasty ends at Itj-tawy. Jacob marries Leah niece of Rebecca and great-granddaughter of Nahor brother of Abraham.



Khyan/Yannas/Apachnan reigns from Avaris.



Jacob marries Rachel, Leah’s younger sister.



Ishmael dies in Canaan.



Joseph born to Rachel and Jacob, and they leave Haran probably for Edom and intermingle with the native Shasu tribes who form the Pre-Edomite population.



17th dynasty replaces the 16th in Thebes.


* James B. Parkinson, Resolving Chronology of the 2nd Millennium B.C. (http://www.biblechronology. org/studies/chron2m.pdf). Parkinson has “Amraphel” dying shortly after the Battle of Siddim. For the identification of “Amraphel” with Hammurabi click here.

Parkinson gives two years after the battle of Siddim for the birth of Ishmael, and this happens to be the exact date of birth of Ishmael based on the biblical fractional calendar.

Perhaps Abraham feared that his grandnephew Isaac, because of his paternity, would have a claim to rule Canaan as well as Egypt, and could displace, or kill, his own son Ishmael.

§ Ancient Jewish folklore asserted that Abraham “invented” the alphabet and brought it to Egypt; much more likely is that he brought it from Egypt and taught his Canaanite subjects to use the existing Egyptian-developed Canaanite alphabet there in Canaan.



Apepi reigns as penultimate Hyksos pharaoh.



Joseph sold to Potiphar in Egypt during the fourth year of the reign of Apepi.*



Joseph imprisoned.



Isaac dies. Joseph freed, becomes vizier in Avaris, and given the name Zaphnath-Paaneah.



The Jacobite sojourn begins in Goshen (Faqus) with 70 individuals joining Joseph and his two sons in Egypt.

Year of the Sojourn


Jacob dies in Egypt.



Kamose, last king of the Egyptian 17th dynasty and brother of Ahmose I, begins reign from Thebes and continues the war with his Hyksos suzerains.



Ahmose I begins reign from Thebes.



Khamudi, last Hyksos pharaoh, begins reign from Avaris.



Joseph dies in Avaris.



Ahmose decisively defeats the Hyksos at Avaris who then flee to Sharuhen in Canaan. He rules all of Egypt and founds the 18th dynasty/New Kingdom. MB III destruction layers result from the Hyksos forced departure from Egypt and their violent attempt to seize city-states in Canaan.

Late Bronze Age I


Amenhotep II invades Syria-Palestine and carries off a great quantity of prisoners including “127” princes of Syria, 179 of their “brothers,” 3,600 “Apiru,” and 15,200 Shasu. Perhaps these Shasu (Midianites) include Yahweh worshipping monotheists from Edom amongst whom was the young Yuya§ “who may have been an assimilated descendant of Asiatic immigrants or slaves who rose to become members of the local nobility at Akhmin.”à



Thutmose IV begins reign. Amenhotep III is born to Thutmose IV; Tiye is born to Yuya and Tjuya, an 18th dynasty princess.



Birth of Ay to Yuya and Tjuya.



Amenhotep III begins reign.



Amenhotep III marries Tiye.



Amenhotep III begins renovating a canal linking the Nile to the Red Sea at Wadi Tumilat in the delta.


* W.G. Waddell, Manetho, with an English translation, Cambridge, Ma: Harvard Univ. Press, 1964, 239.

See Gary Greenberg’s analysis at http://ggreenberg.tripod.com/writings/w-man-18d.htm.

See Pritchard, ed. ANET 3rd Ed., 247.

§ Ahmed Osman, Moses and Akhenaton, Rochester, Vt: Bear and Company, 2002, equates Yuya with Joseph, but he is more likely a direct descendant of Abraham.

à Wikipedia editors, article “Yuya,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Yuya (accessed July 2, 2010).



Amenhotep III organizes a census of the population due to the growth of foreign (Canaanite) residents in Egypt.*



Amenhotep III enslaves the Canaanites (a portion of whom include Yahweh worshipping monotheists from Edom) on the recommendation of his vizier Amenhotep son of Hapu and has them work on the canal at Pi-Ramses (Avaris), Bubastis, and Pithom.



Nefertiti is born to Amenhotep III and his wife Tiye. Ay and his wife Tey act as the child’s “nurse” and are charged with her upbringing.



Akhenaton, younger brother to Nefertiti, is born to Amenhotep III and Tiye.



Amenhotep III declares himself a god and demands Egyptians worship him. The Jacobites refuse to do so. Mutnedjmet is born to Ay and Tey.



Amenhotep III celebrates his second jubilee; he marries his daughter Aset, granddaughter of Yuya.



Amenhotep III celebrates his third jubilee. He chooses his son Akhenaton to become his co-regent. Akhenaton marries his sister Nefertiti to legitimize his right to the throne and their daughter Meritaton is born; Hebrew tradition§ equates Jochebed with Shiphrah the mid-wife that dealt (perhaps at Meritaton’s delivery?) with pharaoh.



“Moses” (birth name = Smenkhkare) is born to Akhenaton and Jochebed/Shiphrah and is adopted by Asetà (Asiya?) daughter/wife of Amenhotep III and raised at the royal Egyptian court.



Amenhotep III dies.



Akhenaton takes decisive steps to establish Aton as the exclusive, monotheistic God of Egypt, drops the name of Amenhotep IV, and attempts to convert all of Egypt to the monotheism of the Yahwist worshiping Jacobites/Edomites perhaps at the instigation of his mother Tiye/his sister Aset.



Akhenaton establishes his capital at Akhetaton (Amarna). During the Amarna Revolution Horemheb will make a tacit show of support by adopting the name “Paatonemheb,”* and slowly rises through the ranks of the army assisted by his right-hand man, fellow officer and kinsman Ramses.


* See Philipp Vandenberg, Nefertiti, Paris: Pierre Belfond, 1987.

See Pierre Montet, Everyday Life in the Days of Ramesses the Great, Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1981.

Men in ancient Egypt married their sisters not because familiarity had bred romance, but because they wished to enjoy the family inheritance (including the kingship), which passed down from mother to daughter, and they did not care to see this wealth give aid and comfort to strangers.

§ See the writings of Shlomo Yitzchaki aka Rashi.

à Aset or Iset (the Greek Isis) in ancient Egyptian would have been pronounced as Iseah or Aseah the final “t” being silent and instead substituted with an “ah” sound as in modern Arabic. “For convenience, Egyptologists arbitrarily choose to pronounce her name as “ee-set.” Sometimes they may also say “ee-sa” because the final “t” in her name was a feminine suffix, which is known to have been dropped in speech.” Wikipedia editors, article “Isis,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isis (accessed July 2, 2010). . . . It is but a step from Aseah to Asiya as in Islamic tradition. See Wikipedia editors, article “Asiya,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asiya (accessed July 2, 2010).

* Toby A. H. Wilkinson, The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt, New York: Random House, 2010, 287.



Tutankhaton is born to Akhenaton and Nefertiti in Amarna. Buoyed by the birth of a male heir, Akhenaton emphatically declares Aton the only God and orders the defacing of Amen’s temples throughout Egypt; he orders the removal of the plural “gods” everywhere, bans images of the universal deity, and makes Egypt officially monotheistic. Psalm 104, composed by Pharaoh Akhenaton as the Great Hymn to the Aton, is later brought out of Egypt by the Atonists.



Queen Mother Tiye and Nefertiti die from bubonic plague. Meritaton assumes the title of Great Royal Wife to Akhenaton, becomes co-regent with him, and assumes her mother’s titles.



Akhenaton dies; Meritaton marries her half-brother Smenkhkare aka Moses. He is a vocal opponent of polytheism, and represents a threat to Horemheb/Ramses’ polytheistic counter-reforms. Opposition to him becomes apparent and he is marked for death by enemies of both he and Akhenaton, perhaps members of the Amenite priesthood favored by Horemheb/Ramses. After a confrontation with an Egyptian in which the Egyptian is killed, he and Meritaton are deposed, and he is forced to flee to Midian. Horemheb decides to rid Egypt of all traces of Atonism by exiling their elite to Canaan.§ Meritaton tries to marry the Hittite prince Zannanza, but Ramses murders them (the “Dakhamuzu affair”) and places Tutankhaton, her brother, on the throne. Horemheb is made regent/crown prince/Great Army Commander. Ramses becomes governor of Avaris.



Perhaps prompted by the total solar eclipse occurring on 2 May at the capital of Akhetaton, Horemheb and Ramses decide to officially restore polytheism, and eradicate all vestiges of the monotheism of Akhenaton. The administrative capital is moved to Memphis and Amarna is abandoned.# However, the now renamed Tutankhamen and his family, including Ay, attempt a “middle course” between Aton monolatry and polytheism.**



Tutankhamen dies (from Sickle Cell Anemia?); Ay wrests the throne away from Horemheb and begins reign by supporting Aton monolatry. Shortly thereafter Nakhtmin, pharaoh Ay’s son, dies and Horemheb marries Mutnedjmet to secure his right of succession.*


* Toby A. H. Wilkinson, The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt, New York: Random House, 2010, 287.

See Osman, 184.

See Arthur Weigall, Akhnaton, King of Egypt, London: T. Butterworth, 1922.

§ Andrew Collins and Chris Ogilvie-Herald, Tutankhamun, the Exodus Conspiracy: The Truth behind Archaeology’s Greatest Mystery, London: Virgin Books, 2002, 177. The authors postulate that the “Exodus papyrus” discovered by Howard Carter relates these events.

Ramses may have acted alone, or with the tacit approval of Horemheb; both men rose as a result.

See William McMurray, Towards an Absolute Chronology for Ancient Egypt (http://www.egyptologyforum.org/EMP/DAPE.pdf)/Dating the Amarna Period in Egypt: Did a Solar Eclipse Inspire Akhenaten? (http://www.egiptomania.com/EEF/DAPE.pdf?) on the 2 May, (Gregorian) 1338 B.C.E. eclipse.

# See Encyclopedia Britannica 2002 ed. s.v. Tutankhamun.

** See Weigall, Akhnaton.

* Aidan Dodson, Monarchs of the Nile, Cairo: American Univ. of Cairo Press, 2000, 115.



Ay dies and Horemheb succeeds to the throne. The 19th dynasty considers him its founder and the beginner of a new era. Gen. Ramses, a high priest of Amen, is elevated to Great Army Commander/Vizier.



The future Ramses II is born to the future Seti I, son of Vizier Ramses, in Avaris. The Egyptians will soon observe the heliacal rising of Sothis on their New Year’s Day in July. Moses (whose name means “The rightful son and heir” of the throne)meets his half-brother Aaron in Midian. They return and confront Pharaoh. On 13 March,§ a Near Eastern (bubonic?) plague is ragingà and the initial inclination of Horemheb to let the enslaved Yahweh monotheists depart is motivated by a desire to free the land of the plague and its perceived progenitors. They link up with and mix with the previously exiled native Egyptian Atonists who then convert to Yahweh monotheism.#

Year of the Exodus


The Song of Miriam (Exod. 15:21) is composed. Moses proceeds to Mt. Sinai (Harrat Ar Raha?) and there the first “Decalogue”** (Exod. 20:3-4a, 13-17a) is formulated from the Egyptian Book of the Dead. He and his followers fashion an “Ark of the Covenant” to hold the Decalogue tablets, then travel to Petra where Moses “judges” them from the wilderness east of the Jordan River. Num. 21:14-15, 17–18 is composed. Miriam and Aaron die in the Trans-Jordan, and Moses dies shortly thereafter.



Vizier Ramses is officially crowned co-regent by Horemheb.



Horemheb dies and Ramses I establishes the Rameside line of the 19th dynasty with its capital at Avaris (Per-Ramses).

Late Bronze Age IIB


Seti I begins reign in Egypt.


The modern calculation of the “Sothic” year is about 1,452 civil years at 30° latitude; because the Roman author Censorinus stated that 139/140 C.E. was the founding of a new “Sothic” year it is easy to arrive at the conclusion that 1313 B.C.E., or thereabouts, was the start of the previous Sothic year. Theon, the mathematician from Alexandria, terms the cycle just completed the era of “Menophres.” Ramses I’s throne name was Menpehre—which easily translates as “Menophres.” Perhaps because he was the first monarch to begin his reign in this cycle, Theon named it after him.

Ahmed Osman, Moses and Akhenaten, 67.

§ 13 March corresponds to 15 Nisan 2448 in the Hebrew calendar. This is the traditional Exodus date.

à See Qur’an 7:134-5.

Collins and Ogilvie-Herald, Tutankhamun, 263.

# Hebrew = geirim.

** Actually, the Mosaic commandments totaled seven; later additions pushed the number up to the traditional ten.

Collins and Ogilvie-Herald, Tutankhamun, 214-29, passim.

According to William McMurray, who uses detailed astronomical data, 1301 B.C.E. may very well have been the first regnal year of Seti I. This conclusion becomes more than tenable, even probable, when we realize that McMurray’s data indicates that the ancient Egyptians were using the calendar one day off our calendar. “New Moon” to them, as well as other Near Eastern peoples, was not what it is to us. New Moon to us is what is astronomically termed “Dark Moon,” the complete absence of the moon due to its being shadowed by the Earth. To them, “New Moon” was the first day after Dark Moon when the very first sliver of the ascendant crescent is visible—exactly one day later.



The amalgamated group now calls itself Israel (from the Canaanite/Hebrew word yisra’el “he that striveth with God(s)”). They perform the covenant renewal ceremony (returning to Mt. Harrat Ar Raha), which is repeated every “40” years, and officially they rest from war during the pilgrimage to “Sinai.”



Ramses II begins reign in Egypt.



The “conquest” proceeds very slowly as an “infiltration.” The Israelites continuously roam from Trans-Jordan to Shechem (a hotbed of anti-Egyptian rebellion).* They join the Yahweh monolatrous confederacy on the highlands of Canaan and become the “tribe of Levi” (from the Hebrew word lewi, literally “joining, pledging, attached,” stemming from lawah “he joined”). Eventually, twelve tribes form this confederacy, adopt the name Israel to mean all of them, and are led by the Levites who are strict monotheists.



The Egyptian army under Ramses II sacks Jericho and Jerusalem, which are claimed by the Israelites. However, the Jebusites quickly expel them from Jerusalem, and eventually the residents of Jericho expel them also.



Joshua leads the nation of Israel. Josh. 10:12b-13a is composed.



Joshua “conquers” Heshbon.



Merneptah begins reign in Egypt. Joshua 15:9 and 18:15, both mention the “well of waters of Nephtoah,” which may be the Hebrew name of Merneptah.



Merneptah erects the Israel Stele which documents that Israel was without a king but a “significant socioeconomic entity that needed to be reckoned with” by Merneptah. The determinative for “Israel” is for a seminomadic or rural population at the time of the stele’s creation.



Joshua dies and Israelite Elders lead thereafter.



“Cushan-rishathaim” king of Aram-naharaim (Kadashman-Turgu, Kassite king of Babylonia?) oppresses the Israelites and rules them.



Othniel defeats Cushan-rishathaim.

Period of the Judges


Setnakhte founds the 20th dynasty in Egypt.

Iron Age IA


Ramses III (Gk. Theoclymenus/“Remphis”/“Rhampsinitis”) succeeds his father Setnakhte.



Eglon, king of Moab, rules Israel.



Troy VIIa falls to the Achaeans and Danaans. Pliny alludes to a Ramses in whose time Troy fell.


* Gary Greenberg, The Bible Myth, New York: Citadel Press Books, 1996, 159.

M. G. Hasel, Israel in the Merneptah Stela, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 296:45-61, 1994.

Carol A. Redmount, “Bitter Lives: Israel in and out of Egypt” in The Oxford History of the Biblical World, ed. Michael D. Coogan, New York: Oxford University Press, 1999, 97.



Ramses III defeats the iron-wielding Peleset Sea Peoples (i.e. the Caphtorite Philistines), who are refugees from the destruction of Troy, and settles them on the SW coast of Canaan.



Ehud judges Israel.



Ehud assassinates Eglon and Israel rests for “80” years.*



Shamgar, a Hittite king of Carchemish, oppresses Israel.



King Jabin of Hazor/Canaan oppresses Israel.



The Hekla 3 volcano erupts in Iceland, which expels up to 12 cubic kilometers of rock into the atmosphere and causes large-scale failures of the crop harvest. The presence of significant quantities of volcanic soot in the air prevents sunlight from reaching the ground and arrests global tree ring growth for almost two full decades. The result in Egypt was a 500% inflation in grain prices. Ramses III experiences a labor strike over the food shortages. Possibly this starts the Eastern Mediterranean Dark Age.



Ramses III assassinated? Egyptian control of southern Canaan ends. Ramses IV-XI reign.

Iron Age IB


Deborah/Barak judge Israel.



Deborah/Barak defeat Jabin in a major battle on the plain of Esdraelon. Judg. 5:1-31a is composed shortly thereafter.



Midian rules over Israel.



Gideon defeats Midian.



Abimelech, son of Gideon, rules Israel.



Tola judges Israel.



Jair judges Israel.



Ammonites rule over Israel.



Jephthah defeats the Ammonites, (150 years after the conquest of Heshbon) and judges Israel.



Ibzan judges Israel. Founding of dynasty 21 from Tanis.



Elom judges Israel.



Abdon judges Israel.



Philistines rule over Israel and for the first time since the Exodus Israel is prevented from celebrating the covenant renewal ceremony. Samson leads the Israelites in their struggle with the Philistines and defeats them.


*According to Judg. 3:30 Israel rested for “80” years after Eglon’s assassination; this is likely a mistake for 8 civil years erroneously written in the 1st millennium B.C.E.

Frank J. Yurco, “End of the Late Bronze Age and Other Crisis Periods: A Volcanic Cause” in Teeter, Emily, Larson, John (Eds.). Gold of Praise: Studies on Ancient Egypt in Honor of Edward F. Wente. Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization 58, Chicago, IL: Oriental Institute of the Univ. of Chicago, 1999, 456–458.

See Judg. 11:26.



Samson leads* the Israelites in their continued struggle with the Philistines dying in the process.



Eli judges Israel.



Philistines take the “Ark of the Covenant.” Eli dies. Philistines return “Ark of the Covenant” where it remains with Samuel at Kiriath-jearim “20” years.



Samuel and the Israelites fight the battle of Ebenezer against the Philistines and prevail.

 Iron Age IIA


Samuel appoints Saul to become hereditary chieftain of Israel and he rules “42” (regnal) years.



Hiram I becomes king of Tyre.



Samuel, last “judge” of Israel, dies in the 18th year of the reign of Saul.§



David becomes chief of Judah at Hebron.



David becomes hereditary chieftain of Judah and Israel.



David conquers Jerusalem, which assures the Israelites of a southern capital. The town has a population of about 1,500 whilst the Canaanite highlands that will later become the kingdoms of Judah and Israel total about 75,000.



The composition of other Psalms that supplement Psalm 104 begins in Jerusalem and will continue until the time of the Hasmoneans about 150 B.C.E.



Early in the year, Solomon becomes co-chieftain of Israel at Jerusalem. In April David dies.



Solomon marries Nicaule—daughter of Psusennes II, pharaoh of Egypt.#



Solomon makes Zadok high priest, and replaces the Levite priesthood with an “Aaronid” one descended from Zadok.** Psalm 24:7-10 is composed, as is Gen. 49:1-28 and Num. 24:3–9, 15–19.



Sheshonq I (Shishak) becomes king of Egypt at Bubastis, and founds dynasty 22.



Jeroboam flees to Egypt under Shishak.


* See Judg. 15:20.

See I Sam. 7:2.

See I Sam. 13:1.

§ Josephus, Antiquities, Bk. 6, chap. 13.

The possibly authentic Davidic psalms are: 2, 16, 32, 69, 95, 96, 105, 106, and 110.

Taken from Leslie McFall’s Chronology of the Hebrew Kings (found online at https://lmf12.files. wordpress.com/2012/11/hebrew_revised_kings.pdf). McFall performs a “fine tuning” of Edwin Thiele’s generally accepted chronology of the Hebrew kings.

# See I Kings 9:16.

** See I Kings 2:27, 35 and I Chronicles 29:22.



Solomon dies and two kingdoms coalesce from the highland Canaanite chiefdoms practicing Yahweh monolatry: a northern kingdom of Israel and a southern client kingdom of Judah. Jeroboam becomes king of Israel at Shechem, and Rehoboam becomes king of Judah at Jerusalem.*



Sheshonq I, the biblical “Shishak,” invades Judah and despoils Jerusalem (fifth year of Rehoboam), in support of his ally Jeroboam.

Iron Age IIB


Abijam becomes king of Judah.

18 Jeroboam


Asa becomes king of Judah.

20 Jeroboam


Nadab ben Jeroboam becomes king of Israel.

2 Asa


Baasha becomes king of Israel at Tirzah.

3 Asa


Zerah of Ethiopia attacks Judah but is defeated.



Elah becomes king of Israel.

26 Asa


Zimri kills Elah, and becomes king of Israel. Army commander Omri is elected king by his troops, and seven days later Zimri sets fire to his palace and perishes. Tibni starts a civil war by claiming himself king.

27 Asa


Omri becomes sole king of Israel at Samaria.

31 Asa


Ithobaal slays King Phelles and becomes king of Tyre.§



Ahab becomes king of Israel at Samaria.

38 Asa


Jehoshaphat becomes co-regent of Judah.

2 Ahab


Ahab marries Jezebel, daughter of Ithobaal.



Shalmaneser III becomes king of Assyria.



Three years of peace between Aram and Israel begin.à



Jehoram ben Jehoshaphat becomes co-regent of Judah.

21 Ahab

* From this point on we enter the realm of genuine history; the reigns of the Hebrew monarchs are cross-dated by each other i.e. the king of Judah became king in regnal year X of the king of Israel and vice versa. Each kingdom uses its own civil calendar and hence the “fractional” one falls into disuse.

See I Kings 14:25-27 and 2 Chronicles 12:9.

The Omrides will later build magnificent palaces, temples, fortifications, and found an empire. They make it a priority to economically develop their country beyond recognition. However, they, like Peter and Lenin, tried to move too quickly from an agricultural to an industrial state. Not only did the toil and taxes involved in their enterprises impose great burdens upon their people, but when those undertakings were complete, after years of industry, a proletariat had been created which, lacking sufficient employment, became a source of political faction and corruption in Palestine, precisely as it was to become in Rome. It was in this atmosphere of political disruption, economic war, and religious degeneration that the Prophets appeared.

§ Josephus, Antiquities, Bk. 8, Ch. 13 who cites Menander of Ephesus; Menander had access to and translated the Annals of Tyre.

à See I Kings 22:1.



Shalmaneser III of Assyria “defeats” the allied Aramean-Israel force at Qarqar southwest of Aleppo* commanded by the Aramean king Hadadezer of Damascus. However, Shalmaneser withdraws. Ahab and Jehoshaphat attack Aram at Ramoth-gilead. Ahab dies and Ahaziah ben Ahab becomes king of Israel.

21 Jehoshaphat


Jehoram ben Ahab, brother of Ahaziah, becomes king of Israel. Elijah disappears leaving behind his disciple Elisha.

22 Jehoshaphat

September  842

Ahaziah ben Jehoram, son of queen Athaliah daughter of Ahab, becomes co-regent of Judah.



King Hazael of Aram-Damascus attacks Tel Dan. He defeats Ahaziah and Jehoram, ending the grand alliance among Judah, Israel, and Phoenicia sealing their fates; Jehu seizes throne of Israel, sends tribute to Shalmaneser, and fanatically restores Yahwism. Athaliah becomes queen regnant of Judah. Shalmaneser attacks Hazael.

11 Jehoram


High priest Jehoiada assassinates Athaliah thereby making Jehoash ben Ahaziah sole king of Judah. “Jehoiada then made a covenant between the Lord and the king and people that they would be the Lord’s people. He also made a covenant between the king and the people.”§ High priest Jehoiada and Jehoash order the building of the Temple in Jerusalem.

7 Jehu


Jehoash ben Ahaziah finishes the construction of the Templeà and places the “Ark of the Covenant” there. Following its dedication Jehoiada(?) composes in the Temple the Jahwist document (J)


* See Kurkh Stele.

Taken from: Leslie McFall’s Chronology.

See Tel Dan Stele.

§ See II Kings 11:17; probably the construction of the Temple and the composition of the J document solemnized this covenant.

à The site chosen was on a hill; the walls of the Temple rose, like the Parthenon, continuously from the rocky slopes. (It is likely that the site of the Temple was that which the Muslim shrine El-haram-esh-sharif now covers; but no remains of the Temple have been found.) The design was in the style that the Phoenicians had adopted from Egypt, with decorative ideas from Assyria and Babylon. The main structure was of modest dimensions—about thirty-eight meters in length, seventeen in breadth, and sixteen in height—half the length of the Parthenon, a quarter of the length of Chartres. The Hebrews, who came from all Judah to contribute to it, and later to worship in it, forgivably looked upon it as one of the wonders of the world; they had not seen the immensely greater temples of Thebes, Babylon, and Nineveh. Inside gold was spread lavishly about, if we may credit our sole authority: on the beams of the main ceiling, on the posts, the doors and the walls, on the candelabra, the lamps, the snuffers, the spoons, the censers, and “a hundred basins of gold.” Precious stones were inlaid here and there, and two gold-plated cherubim guarded the Ark of the Covenant. The walls were of great square stones; the ceiling, posts, and doors were of carved cedar and olive wood. They brought most of the building materials from Phoenicia, and artisans imported from Sidon and Tyre did most of the skilled work. The unskilled labor was herded together by a ruthless corvée of men, after the fashion of the time.

(Gen. 2:4b-25, 3:1-24, 4:1-24, 5:28b,d, 29, 6:5-8, 7:1-5, 7, 10, 12, 16b, 17b-19, 23, 8:6-12, 18, 19b, 20-22, 9:18a,c, 20-22a,c-27, 11:1-9, 12:1-4a, 6-20, 13:1-18, 16:1-15, 18:1-33, 19:1-28, 30-38, 21:1-2a, 33, 22:11-15, 20-24, 24:1-67, 25:11b, 18, 21-26a, 27-34, 26:1-33, 27:1-45, 28:10-11a, 13-16, 19, 29:1-35, 30:1a, 4-13, 21-43, 31:3, 46-49, 32:3-12, 33:1a, 3a,c-5, 10-11a,c, 16, 18, 34:1-31, 35:21-22, 37:2b, 3b, 5-11, 19-20, 23, 25b-27, 28b, 31-35, 38:1-30, 39:1-23, 40:2-3a,c, 7, 15b, 41:45b-46, 49-55, 42:1-4, 8-20, 26-34, 38, 43:1-13, 15-17, 24-34, 44:1-34, 45:1-28, 46:5b, 28-34, 47:1-4, 7-10, 13-27, 50:22a, Exod. 1:6, 13-14, 22, 2:1-22, 3:2-4a, 5, 7-8, 19-22, 4:19-20a, 24-26, 5:1-2, 8:1-3a, 12a,c-15, 20-25a, 25c-32, 12:28-32, 13:21-22, 14:5-7, 9a, 10b, 13-14, 19b, 20b, 21b, 24, 25b-26, 27b, 28b, 29-31, 15:1-20, 27, 16:4-5, 35b, 17:2-7, 19:10-16a, 18, 20-25, 20:1-2, 4b-10, 12, 17b, 24:12, 17, 32:7-8, 15-20, 33:1-5, 34:1-26, Num. 10:29-36, 13:3b,d, 17b-20, 23-24, 27-31, 33, 14:1b-2a,c,e, 3-4, 11-25, 39-45, 16:1b,d, 12b-14, 25, 27b-32a, 33-34, 20:14-21, 21:1-3, 12-13, 16, 19-35, 25:1-5, Deut. 31:16-17, 21-22, 33:27-29, Josh. 2:1-10, 12-24, 3:1, 5, 14a, 16, 5:13-15, 6:1-3, 4b, 5, 14b-15, 16b, 20a,c-23, 26-27,  8:3b-4a,c, 5-6a,c, 7, 9-10, 14-22, 26, 9:3-6a,c, 8b-13, 15a, 16, 22, 24a, 25b-26, 24:1a, 2a,c-3a, 3c-11a,c, 14a, 15a, 16, 19a,c, 21-22, 25, Judg. 1:1-8, 17, 22-26, 4:2-3a, 4a,c, 6a,c, 8-9a, 9c-10a, 12-13, 16-24, 6:2a, 3-4a, 6, 34-35, 7:1, 9a, 11b, 13-15a,c, 16-25, 8:4a, 5-9, 11-21, 28a, 11:1a, 2-11a, 29, 33, 14:1-2, 5a,c-6, 8a,c-20, 15:1-7, 15-18a, 19a, 16:1-17a, 17c-26, 29-31a, 17:1-2a, 4, 6-13, 18:1-4, 7a, 8-9, 11, 13b-14a, 14c-17a, 18b, 18d-20a, 20c-30, 19:1-18, 20-30, 20:14-17, 20-22, 35, 47, 21:15a, 17a, 18b-19a, 20-21, 23, 25, I Sam. 1:1-3a, 4-9a, 9c-10, 13-15, 17-20, 24a,c-28, 2:1-11, 19-21, 3:1-10, 8:1-5a, 6-19, 20b-22, 9:15-17, 14:1a, 7-11a, 12-15, 20, 24-27, 44-48, 15:1-3a, 4-8, 10-11, 13, 16-19a, 24a, 25-26a, 27-28, 30-33a, 34-35, 16:1, 4-5a,c, 6-13, 17:1-11, 16-26a, 27, 31-32, 37b-41, 48b-53, 55-58, 18:1-2, 5, 15-17a, 18-20, 22-25a, 26-30, 19:1-8, 11-17, 20:1a,c-7, 11, 18-22, 24-31, 34-39, 22:1-2, 24:2-4, 8-10a, 11b, 14-19, 22b, 25:1b-13a, 14-21, 23-24a, 25a, 27, 32-33a, 35-37, 39a,c-40, 42, 27:2a,c-3a, 5-6a, 8a, 11-12, 29:1-4, 9-10a,c, 11, 30:1b, 3-4, 10a, 11-17a, 18a, 19b, 31:1-7,  II Sam. 1:1-4, 11-12, 17-27, 2:2a,c, 3b-4a, 8-9, 12-26, 28, 3:1, 7-8, 11, 17-18a, 19-20a,c, 21-27, 31-34a, 37-39, 5:1-3, 7, 9-10).



Jehoahaz ben Jehu becomes king of Israel.

23 Jehoash

April* 799

Jehoash ben Jehoahaz becomes co-regent of Israel.

36 Jehoash


Jehoahaz ben Jehu dies.



Amaziah becomes king of Judah.

2 Jehoash


Jeroboam II becomes co-regent of Israel.

3 Amaziah


Uzziah becomes co-regent of Judah.

3 Jeroboam II


Jehoash ben Jehoahaz plunders Jerusalem. Probably at this time, the Northern troops bring back with them a copy/copies of the J document. The Elohist document (E)  is composed, writes Brian Arthur Brown, “as a reply to J” by a Levite priest(s). Brown goes on to state that “(w)hereas Abraham’s persona remained supreme in the South, that of Moses dominated the North among the Levites who eventually edited J and E together into one document, the first hybrid evolution of the text,” resulting in JE.

12 Amaziah


Jehoash dies.

14 Amaziah

* According to Leslie McFall’s website.

Josephus, Antiquities, Bk. 9, Ch. 10.

(Gen. 15:1b-5, 20:1-18, 21:6-32, 34  22:1-10, 16-19, 25:1-4, 28:11b-12, 17-18, 20-22, 30:1b-3, 14-20, 31:1-2, 4-16, 19-45, 50-55, 32:1-2, 13-32, 33:1b-2, 3b, 6-9, 11b, 12-15, 17, 19-20, 35:1-8, 16-20, 37:3a, 4, 12-18, 21-22, 24, 25a, 28a, 29-30, 36, 40:1, 3b, 4-6, 8-15a,16-23, 41:1-45a, 47-48, 56-57, 42:5-7, 21-25, 35-37, 43:14, 18-23, 46:1-5a, 47:5-6a,c, 11-12, 29-31, 48:1, 2b, 8-21, 50:1-8a, 9-11, 14-21, 24-26, Exod. 1:8-12, 15-21, 3:1a, 4b, 6, 9-18, 4:1-18, 20b-23, 27-31, 5:3-23, 6:1, 7:14-18, 20b-21, 23-25, 8:3b-5a, 5c-6a, 6c-8a, 8c-11, 16a,c-17a, 17c-19, 9:1-7, 13-35, 10:1-29, 11:1-8, 12:21-27, 33-34, 13:1-16, 14:11-12, 19a, 20a,c-21a, 21c-23, 25a, 27a, 28a,c, 15:22-26, 17:8-16, 18:1-27, 19:2b-8, 16b-17, 19, 20:18-26, 21:1-36, 22:1-31, 23:1-33, 24:1-11, 13-15, 32:1-6, 9-14, 21-35, 33:12-23, Num. 11:1-3, 16-17, 24-30, 12:1-15, 13:1-2, 21-22, 32, 20:1b, 2a, 3a, 5, 10b-11a, 21:5-9, 22:2-3, 5-6, 8-21, 36-41, 23:1-30, 24:1-2, 10-14, 20-25, Deut. 31:14-15, 23).



The Northern Book of Judges (N),* a largely legendary account, is composed to supplement JE becoming JEN.The kernel of the Book of Judges,” writes Yoreh, it “focuses on seven heroes who save Israel from marauders, and culminates with Saul who is appointed King.”


April- September 767

Amaziah dies.



In August or September† Zechariah becomes king of Israel.


March† 752

Shallum becomes king of Israel. In Late April† Menahem kills him and becomes king.



Jotham rules Judah as co-regent of Uzziah who has leprosy.

41 Uzziah


Amos is composed, as is Hosea whose author also composes(?)The Book of Miracle Men (M). A good deal of the narrative material in I Kings 17-II Kings 15,” Yoreh states “is part of an independent composition by a northern author chronicling the miracles of two of the major prophets of the time, Elijah and Elisha.” Later it supplements JEN becoming JENM.



Menahem pays tribute to Tiglath-Pilesar III of Assyria.



Pekahiah becomes king of Israel.

8 Jotham


Pekah murders Pekahiah and becomes king of Israel.

10 Jotham

April-September† 739

Uzziah dies.


September† 735

Ahaz becomes co-regent of Judah.



Tiglath-Pileser III conquers northern part of Israel. Hoshea§ assassinates Pekah, and becomes king of the remaining part of Israel.

3 Ahaz


Jotham dies.



Osorkon IV becomes king of Egypt at Bubastis.

3 Hoshea

September† 729

Hezekiah becomes co-regent of Judah.

6 Ahaz


Hoshea requests aid from Pharaoh So (Osorkon IV) of Egypt.



Israel falls to Sargon II of Assyria. Hoshea imprisoned. Judah’s population swells from around 25,000 to over 125,000 due to the influx of refugees from Israel; they bring with them JENM and Hosea.

6 Hezekiah

* (Judg. 3:12b, 13-30a, 4:4b, 5, 6b, 7, 9b, 10b-11, 14-15, 6:7-17a, 18-19a,c, 21-25a,c,e, 26a,c,e-28a, 29-31, 33, 7:2-8, 9b-11a, 12, 15b,d, 8:4b, 10, 22-26a, 27, 11:1b, 12-28, 30-32, 34a,c-40,13:2-4, 10a, 11-25, 14:3-4, 5b, 7, 8b, 15:8-14, 18b, 19b, 16:27-28a,c, I Sam. 3:19a, 20, 7:2b-13a, 14b,9:1-14, 18-27, 10:1-7, 9-16, 27, 11:1-13, 13:2-4a, 7b, 16-18, 14:23, 52).

According to Leslie McFall’s website.

(I Kings 17:1, 5b-7, 10-13, 15-16a, 17-19, 21a,c, 22b-23, 18:2-3a, 5-12a, 15-16, 41-45, II Kings 5:1-16, 19a, 6:8-16, 17b-18a, 19, 21-23, 8:7-15, 13:14a,c-17, 20-21).

§ Josephus, Antiquities, Bk. 9, Ch. 14.


March* 715

Ahaz dies.



First Isaiah composes Isaiah 1-39.



First campaign of Sennacherib in Judah; Lachish is destroyed.

Iron Age IIC


Azariah(?), Hezekiah’s High Priest, edits JENM and supplements it with the P source (P) which is “primarily a priestly legal source,” according to Yoreh that is “responsible for supplementing the J narrative with dates, names, and numbers, thus ‘ordering’ and authenticating J’s account.” Micah 1-3 is composed.


September* 697

Manasseh son of Hezekiah becomes co-regent of Judah.

33 Hezekiah


Tirhakah becomes king of Egypt as well as Nubia.



Second campaign of Sennacherib in Judah; Hezekiah, allied with Tirhakah of Egypt and Nubia, defeats Sennacherib, whose army is destroyed. The Anti-Baal Source (S)§ is composed. Hezekiah dies.



Manasseh installs the goddess Asherah in the Temple. The “Ark of the Covenant” is removed and taken to Elephantine in Egypt.à The Ark Narratives (Ar) (the legends of the Ark of the Covenant in I Samuel 4-6 and in II Samuel 6) are composed.


* According to Leslie McFall’s website.

(Gen. 1:1-31, 2:1-4a, 5:1-28a,c, 30-32, 6:9-22, 7:6, 8-9, 11, 13-16a, 17a, 20-22, 24, 8:1-5, 13-17, 19a,c  9:1-17, 18b, 19, 22b, 28-29, 10:1-4, 6-7, 22-23, 32, 11:10-32 12:4b-5, 16:16, 17:1-27, 19:29, 21:2b-5, 23:1-20, 25:7-11a, 12-17, 20, 26b, 28:1-9, 31:17-18, 35:9-15, 23-26a, 27-29, 36:1, 10-11, 12b-13, 19, 40-43, 37:1-2a, 46:6-27, 47:6b, 28, 48:2a, 3-7, 49:29-33, 50:8b, 12-13, Exod. 1:7, 2:23-25, 6:2-12, 7:1-13, 19-20a, 22, 8:5b, 6b, 8b, 12b, 16b, 17b, 25b, 9:8-12, 11:9-10, 12:37-42, 14:1-4, 8, 9b-10a,c, 15-18, 16:1-3, 6-7, 11-18, 35a, 19:1-2a, 9, 20:11, 24:16, 18, 25:1-5, 7-8, 10-15, 17-20, 23-28, 31-38, 26:1-37, 27:1-21, 28:1-2, 6-15, 30-32, 39, 29:29-30, 30:11-16, 22-29, 31:1-18, 34:27-35, 35:4-7, 21, 30-33, 36:1, 8-38, 37:1-24, 38:1-7, 9-20, 39:2, 5-8, 22-23, 29, 32, 40:1-6, 8-10, 13, 16-25, 28-29, 33, Lev. 1:1-4, 11-13, 2:1-2, 4:27, 28b-30, 31b, 5:17-19, 6:8-9, 13-15, 25-26, 30, 7:1-5, 37-38, 8:1-36, 9:1-24, 10:1-7, 11:1-3, 9, 21, 26-27, 41, 46-47, 12:1-7, 13:1-58, 14:54, 56,  57b, 15:1-13, 16-28, 32-33, 16:1-24, 17:1-4, 10, 13, 18:5-21, 19:11-18, 26-30, 32, 37, 21:1-5, 10-12, 22:1-3, 8, 17-18, 20, 27-31, 23:4-8, 23-27, 33-37, 44, 25:1-5, 19-22, 26:2-6, 10-12, 14-16, 18-35, 46, Num. 1:1-3, 20-43, 46-51, 54,  3:11-16, 4:34, 36, 38, 40b, 42, 44b, 46-49, 5:1-4, 11-18, 24, 27-31, 6:1-8, 7:1-3, 8:1-3, 5-6, 9-10, 14, 22-26, 9:15-23, 10:1-28, 11:35, 12:16,  13:3a,c, 4-17a, 25-26, 14:1a, 2b,d, 5-10, 26-38, 15:1-5, 7, 16:1a,c, 2-7a, 12a, 15, 18-22, 35, 41-50, 17:12-13, 19:1-9, 20:1a,c, 2b, 3b-4, 6-10a, 11b-13, 22-29, 25:6-13, 26:1-7, 12-20, 22-30, 34-35, 37-39, 41-44, 47-51, 63-65, 27:12-13, 15-20, 22-23, 28:1-3, 5, 7, 9-17, 19-21, 24, 29:1-4, 6-40, 32:33-42, 33:1-56, 34:1-12, 16-17, 19-29, 35:9-12, 30-31, 33-34, Josh. 3:6, 8-9, 12, 14b-15, 4:1-5, 8, 5:2-3a, 9, 6:4a,c, 6-7a, 8, 9b-13a,c-14a, 16a, 17, 20b, 24a, 25, 9:6b,d-8a, 14, 15b, 17-21, 23, 24b-25a, 27a, 10:1b, 6b, 7, 9b, 15, 11:23b, 14:1-2a, 15:1-12, 16:1-8, 17:1a, 7b-10, 14-15, 18:1-5, 8-20, 19:1a,c, 9b-14, 16a, 17a, 18a, 22a,c, 23a, 24-25a, 26b, 27a,c, 28b-29, 31a, 32a, 33a,c-34, 39a, 40-41a, 46a,c, 48a, 51, 20:1-3, 7-8, I Kings 6:2-6, 8-10, 15-36, 7:2-7, 12, 48-51, 8:1-8, 12-13, 62-64, 9:25).

See Herodotus who implies that the destruction was a result of a plague caused by rats.

§ (I Kings 17:2-5a, 8-9, 14, 16b, 20, 21b, 22a, 24, 18:1, 3b-4, 12b-14, 17-40, 46, 19:1-21, II Kings 2:1-18, 4:1-7, 38-41, 6:1-7, 9:1-6, 10b-13, 15-16a, 17-21a, 22-24, 30-35, 10:11, 15-16, 18-28).

à See Graham Hancock, The Sign and the Seal, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992.

(I Sam. 4:1b-4a, 5-11a, 5:1-12, 6:1-21, 7:1, II Sam. 6:2-13, 15, 17-19).



Amon becomes king of Judah.



Josiah becomes king of Judah.



Zephaniah is composed.



Jeremiah composes, and his scribe Baruch edits, much of Deuteronomy-II Kings (D1),* thus completing the Moses cycle and filling in material about later periods. As a result, the Holy Books of Moses are “lighted upon” by High Priest Eliakim in the Temple. Subsequently, Josiah outlaws animal sacrifice anywhere other than the Temple.

18 Josiah 


Nahum is composed.



Neco II becomes king of Egypt.



In July Neco II of Egypt defeats Josiah at Megiddo where he dies. Jehoahaz becomes king of Judah. In OctoberJehoiakim becomes king of Judah.


September 608

Jehoiachin becomes co-regent of Judah.



Nebuchadnezzar II becomes king of Babylonia.



Jehoiakim pays tribute to Nebuchadnezzar for 3 years.

8 Jehoiakim§


Habakkuk is composed.



Jehoiachin becomes sole king of Judah. In April Nebuchadnezzar captures Jerusalem along with Jehoiachin. Zedekiah is appointed king of Judah.



Nebuchadnezzar attacks Jerusalem.

9 Zedekiahà


In August 586 Jerusalem falls to the Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar. They destroy the Temple, blind Zedekiah, and carry him into exile thereby ending the Kingdom of Judah. Jerusalem has a population around 15,000 whilst that of Judah as a whole is probably close to 75,000. Jeremiah composes Lamentations; Obadiah is composed.

Babylonian Era

* (Deut. 1:6-8, 19-22, 24-27, 29-30, 34-36, 39-46, 2:1-6, 8-9, 13, 17-19, 24-25, 32-35, 3:1-7, 4:1-2, 9-13, 5:4-22a, 23-29, 9:8-21, 10:1-5, 10-11, 12:1-11, 13-14, 32, 13:1-18, 14:1-26, 15:1-2, 12-14, 18-23, 16:18-22, 17:1-17, 20, 19:1-4, 10-13, 16-21, 20:1, 5-8, 10-20, 21:1-4, 6-23,  22:6-30, 23:1-14, 24:1-5, 7, 10-13, 25:1-3, 5-12, 26:1-10, 28:1-6, 8-19, 23, 38-45, 29:10-13, 16-21, 30:1-14, 31:1-6, 24-30, 32:1-46, 33:1-3, 5-26, Josh. 1:1-7, 10-11, 2:11, 3:2-4, 7, 10-11, 13, 17, 4:14, 5:1, 9:1-2, 27b, 10:1a,c-6a,c, 8-9a, 10, 11:1-9, 21, 23a,c, 12:1a, 9-24, 21:43-45, Judg. 2:11, 14a, 16, 18b-19a, 3:12a,c, 30b-31, 4:1, 3b, 5:31b, 6:1, 8:28b, 10:6a, 7a,c, 8b, 10a, 13:1, 15:20, 16:31b, I Sam. 8:5b, 20a, 12:1-25, 13:1, 14:49-51, 25:43-44, II Sam. 2:10-11, 3:2-6, 5:4-5, 13-16, 7:1-2, 4, 8b-14a, 15-17, 8:15-18a, 21:15-22, 23:8-39, I Kings 2:1-4, 10-12, 3:3, 5:13-16, 6:1, 8:14, 56-58, 60, 11:1a,c-2, 5-6, 11, 26, 29-32, 37-38, 41-43, 14:21b-22a, 25-26a, 29, 31, 15:2-3, 7a, 8, 10-12, 23a,c, 24, 22:42-43, 45, II Kings 8:17, 18b, 20, 23-24, 26a, 27b, 28, 9:27a,c,-29, 11:1-4, 12-16, 19b-20a, 21, 12:1b-3, 17-20, 21b, 14:2-3a, 4, 7, 18-21, 15:2-4, 6-7, 33-35a, 36, 38, 16:2, 4, 6, 19-20, 18:2-3, 6-7a, 8, 13, 15, 17-21, 23-24, 19:36-37, 20:20-21, 21:1-3, 17a,c-20, 23-26, 22:1-3a, 8, 10, 23:1-4a, 6a, 7-8a, 13a,c, 21-23, 25a, 28).

Josephus, Antiquities, Bk. 10, Ch. 4.

According to Leslie McFall’s website.

§ Josephus, Antiquities, Bk. 10, Ch. 6.

à Josephus, Antiquities, Bk. 10, Ch. 7.



Gedaliah becomes governor of Judah at Mispah.*



In Babylonia Ezekiel is composed.



Cyrus the Great begins reign in Persia.



The Anti-Centralization Source (A) is composed in Babylonia and according to Yoreh “adds cultic narratives to the books of Joshua-Samuel emphasizing the diversity of religious centers as opposed to Deuteronomy’s focus on Jerusalem.”



Cyrus the Great conquers Babylon, and returns the treasures from the Temple. Second Isaiah composes Isaiah 40-55 in Babylonia. The Jews return from their exile.

Persian Era


Haggai and Zechariah 1-8 are composed.



The Jews complete the construction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem. A disciple of the school of Jeremiah composes Jeremiah there. Second Isaiah composes Isaiah 56-66 and(?) the Pro-Kingship Source (Pr) that according to Yoreh “adds a textual stratum emphasizing the chosenness (sic) of the anointed monarchs.”



Micah 4-7 and Jonah are composed, as is the Second Deuteronomist (D2),§ who according to Yoreh, “elaborates upon D1’s redaction and themes.”


* Josephus, Antiquities, Bk. 10, Ch. 9.

(Josh. 24:1b, 2b, 3b, 12, 14b, 15b, 17-18, 19b, 20, 23-24, 26-27, Judg. 2:1-5, 6:2b, 4b-5, 17b, 19b, 20, 25b,d, 26b,d, 28b, 32, 36-40, 8:1-3, 26b, 29-32, 9:1-16, 19b-23, 25-57, 10:10b-11, 13-16, 12:1-6, 13:5-9, 10b, 16:17b, 17:2b-3, 5, 18:5-6, 7b, 10, 12-13a, 14b, 17b-18a,c, 20b, 31, 19:19, 20:2-6a, 7-8, 12-13, 18-19, 23-27a, 28b-34, 36-46, 48, 21:1-4, 6-8, 12a, 14a,c, 15b, 17b-18a, 19b, 22, I Sam. 1:3b, 9b, 11-12, 16, 21-23, 24b, 2:12-18, 22a, 23-36, 3:11-18, 19b, 21, 4:1a, 4b, 11b-22, 7:2a, 13b-14a, 15-17, 10:8, 11:14-15, 13:4b-7a, 8-15, 19-23, 14:1b-6, 11b, 16-19, 21-22, 28-43, 15:3b, 9, 12, 14-15, 19b-23, 24b, 26b, 29, 33b, 16:2-3, 5b,d, 14-23, 17:12-15, 28-30, 18:6-14, 17b, 21, 25b, 19:9-10, 18-24, 20:1b, 8a,c-10, 12-13a, 32-33, 21:1-6, 8-15, 22:3-23, 23:1-15, 19-29, 24:1, 12-13, 25:1a, 13b, 26:1-9a, 11b-16a,c-22, 25b, 27:1, 2b, 3b-4, 6b-7, 8b-10, 28:1-25, 29:5-8, 10b, 30:1a, 2, 5-9, 10b, 17b, 18b-19a, 20-25, II Sam. 2:1, 2b, 3a, 27, 29-32, 3:9-10, 12-16, 18b, 20b,d, 28-30, 34b-36, 5:6, 8, 17-20a, 21-25, 6:1, 14, 16, 20-23, 7:3, 5-8a, 8:1-6, 18b, 10:1-19, 11:1-27, 12:1-10, 13-31, 13:1-34a, 37b, 38b-39, 14:1-24, 29-33, 15:1-16a, 17b-24, 27-29, 32a,c-37, 16:5-9, 11a, 13-20, 17:1-14a, 15-26, 18:1-7, 9-15, 17, 19-33, 19:1, 5-8a, 13, 15a, 16a,c-17a, 19-20, 23, 31-38, 39b, 20:1-2, 4-26, 21:1-6a, 8-9a, 14b, 24:1-9, 11b-15, 18-22, 24-25 I Kings 1:1-53, 2:5-9, 13-32a, 34-43, 46, 3:4-13, 15-28, 10:1-10, 13, 23-24,11:14-25, 12:1, 3b-14, 16-17, 19).

(I Sam. 17:26b, 33-37a, 42-48a, 54, 18:3-4, 20:8b, 13b-17, 23, 40-42, 21:7, 23:16-18, 24:5-7, 10b-11a, 20-22a,c, 25:22, 24b, 25b-26, 28-31, 33b-34, 38, 39b, 41, 26:9b-11a, 16b, 23-25a, 30:26-31, 31:8-13  II Sam. 1:5-10, 13-16, 2:4b-7, 4:1-2a, 5-12, 5:20b, 9:1-10a, 11, 13:34b-37a, 37c-38a, 14:25-28, 15:25-26, 30-31, 32b, 16:1-4, 10, 11b-12, 17:14b, 27-29, 18:8, 16, 18, 19:2-4, 8b-12, 14, 15b, 16b, 17b-18, 21-22, 24-30, 39a, 40-43, 21:6b-7, 9b-14a, 23:1-7, 24:10-11a, 16-17, 23, I Kings 2:32b-33, 44-45, 4:1-34, 9:26-28, 10:11-12, 14-22, 25-29).

§ (Deut.1:1b-2, 5, 9-18, 23, 28, 31-33, 37-38, 2:7, 26-31, 36-37, 3:8, 10, 12-13a, 18-19a,c-29, 4:5-8, 14-40, 44-49, 5:1-3, 22b, 30-33, 6:1-25, 7:1-26, 8:1-20, 9:1-7, 25-29, 10:12-22, 11:1-32, 12:12, 15-31, 14:27-29, 15:3-11, 15-17, 16:1-17, 17:18-19, 18:1-22, 19:5-9, 14-15, 20:2-4, 9, 21:5,  22:1-5, 23:15-25, 24:6, 8-9, 14-22, 25:4, 13-19, 26:11-19, 27:1-26, 28:46-68, 29:1-9, 14-15, 22-29, 30:15-20, 31:7-13, 18-20, 32:47, 33:4, Josh.1:8-9, 12-18, 4:12-13, 6:7b, 9a, 13b, 18, 7:2-26, 8:1-2a, 23, 27-35, 9:27b, 10:11, 16-43, 11:10-19, 22, 12:1b-8, 13:1, 7, 22:1-3a, 4a, 5-6, 23:1-16, 24:11b, 13, Judg. 2:12-13, 14b-15, 17-18a, 19b-23, 3:1a, 3-11, 8:33-35, 9:17-19a, 24, 10:1-5, 6b, 7b, 8a,c-9, 12, 17-18, 11:11b, 34b, 12:7-15, 16:28b, I Sam. 10:17-26, II Sam. 4:2b-4, 5:11-12, 7:14b, 18-29, 8:7-14, 9:10b, 12-13, 22:1-51, I Kings 3:14, 5:1-12, 17-18, 6:7, 11-14, 37-38, 7:1, 8:9, 15-55, 59, 61, 9:1-10, 14, 11:3-4, 7-10, 12-13, 27-28, 33-36, 39-40, 12:2-3a, 18, 20, 25-29, 31-32a,c, 13:34, 14:1-4, 6-11, 19-21a, 22b-24, 26b-28, 30, 15:1, 4-6, 7b, 9, 13-22, 23b,d, 25-29a, 30-34, 16:5-6, 8-11, 13-23a, 25-28a,c-29a,c-31, 21:17-18a, 19a, 21-22, 24, 22:39-41, 44, 46-51a, 51c-53, II Kings 1:1, 18, 3:1a,c-3, 8:16, 18a, 19, 21-22, 25, 26b-27a,c, 29, 9:7-10a, 14, 16b,  10:29, 32-35a, 35c-36a,c, 11:5-11, 17-19a, 20b, 12:1a, 4-16, 21a, 13:1a,c-6a, 8-9a, 9c-10a, 10c-13a, 14b, 18-19, 22-25, 14:1, 3b, 5-6, 8-14a, 15-16a, 16c-17, 22-23a, 23c-25a, 28-29, 15:1, 5, 8a,c-11, 13a, 14a,c,e-17a, 18-23a,c-25a, 25c-27a,c-32, 35b, 37, 16:1, 3, 5, 7-18, 17:1a,c-5a, 6b-13a,c, 14-17, 22, 35-40, 18:1, 4-5, 7b, 14, 16, 22, 25-30, 34a, 35-37, 19:14-19, 35, 21:4-12, 14-15, 17b, 21-22, 22:3b-7, 9, 11-20, 23:4b-5, 6b, 8b-12, 13b, 14-15, 24, 25b-27, 29-37, 24:1, 3b, 4b-6, 8-12, 15-20, 25:1-12, 18-30).



High Priest Ezra in the Second Temple in Jerusalem authors both Zechariah 9-14 and Malachi.



Ezra acts as the final redactor of the Enneateuch (Genesis-II Kings). First, he completes the supplementary process begun with J.* As “(t)he final redactor of J’s historiographical project, (he) adds popular myths and narrative bridges connecting between sections,” according to Yoreh. In addition, he “supplements the P lists” and “popularizes the P laws for the masses.” Finally, he has a major concern: the prestige of prophets and their disciples, which he impresses upon the texts of Kings.” As one of the final author/editors, “his narratives are preserved mostly uninterrupted.” Because Ezra closes the canonization process vis-à-vis the Enneateuch no further supplementation is possible, hence the book of Chronicles, which contains material that a later author/editor could have inserted, was excluded and remained as a separate work.


* (Gen. 4:25-26, 6:1-4, 10:5, 8-21, 24-31, 14:1-24, 15:1a, 6-21, 25:5-6, 19, 26:34-35, 27:46, 35:26b, 36:2-9, 12a, 14-18, 20-39, 48:22, 50:22b-23, Exod. 1:1-5, 3:1b, 6:13-30, 12:1-20, 35-36, 43-51, 13:17-20, 16:8-10, 19-34, 36, 17:1, 25:6, 9, 16, 21-22, 29-30, 39-40, 28:3-5, 16-29, 33-38, 40-43, 29:1-28, 31-46, 30:1-10, 17-21, 30-38, 33:6-11, 35:1-3, 8-20, 22-29, 34-35, 36:2-7, 37:25-29, 38:8, 21-31, 39:1, 3-4, 9-21, 24-28, 30-31, 33-43, 40:7, 11-12, 14-15, 26-27, 30-32, 34-38, Lev. 1:5-10, 14-17, 2:3-16, 3:1-17, 4:1-26, 28a, 31a, 32-35, 5:1-16, 6:1-7, 10-12, 16-24, 27-29, 7:6-36, 10:8-20, 11:4-8, 10-20, 22-25, 28-40, 42-45, 12:8, 13:59, 14:1-53, 55, 57a, 15:14-15, 29-31, 16:25-34, 17:5-9, 11-12, 14-16, 18:1-4, 22-30, 19:1-10, 19-25, 31, 33-36, 20:1-27, 21:6-9, 13-24, 22:4-7, 9-16, 19, 21-26, 32-33, 23:1-3, 9-22, 28-32, 38-43, 24:1-23, 25:6-18, 23-55, 26:1, 7-9, 13, 17, 36-45, 27:1-34, Num. 1:4-19, 44-45, 52-53, 2:1-34, 3:1-10, 17-51, 4:1-33, 35, 37, 39-40a, 41, 43-44a, 45, 5:5-10, 19-23, 25-26, 6:9-27, 7:4-89, 8:4, 7-8, 11-13, 15-21, 9:1-14, 11:4-15, 18-23, 31-34, 15:6, 8-41, 16:7b-11, 16-17, 23-24, 26-27a, 32b, 36-40, 17:1-11, 18:1-32, 19:10-22, 21:4, 10-11, 22:1, 4, 7, 22-35, 25:14-18, 26:8-11, 21, 31-33, 36, 40, 45-46, 52-62, 27:1-11, 14, 21, 28:4, 6, 8, 18, 22-23, 25-31, 29:5, 30:1-16, 31:1-54, 32:1-32, 34:13-15, 18, 35:1-8, 13-29, 32, 36:1-13, Deut. 1:1a, 3-4, 2:10-12, 14-16, 20-23, 3:9, 11, 13b-17, 19b, 4:3-4, 41-43, 9:22-24, 10:6-9, 32:48-52, 34:1-12, Josh. 4:6-7, 9-11, 15-24, 5:3b-8, 10-12, 6:19, 24b, 7:1, 8:2b-3a, 4b, 6b, 8, 11-13, 24-25, 10:12a, 13b-14, 11:20, 13:2-6, 8-33, 14:2b-15, 15:13-63, 16:9-10, 17:1b-7a, 11-13, 16-18, 18:6-7, 21-28, 19:1b, 2-9a, 15, 16b, 17b, 18b-21, 22b,d, 23b, 25b-26a,c, 27b, 28a, 30, 31b, 32b, 33b, 35-38, 39b, 41b-45, 46b, 47, 48b-50, 20:4-6, 9, 21:1-42, 22:3b, 4b, 7-34, 24:28-33, Judg. 1:9-16, 18-21, 27-36, 2:6-10, 3:1b-2, 20:1, 6b, 9-11, 27b-28a, 21:5, 9-11, 12b-13, 14b, 16, 24, I Sam. 2:22b, II Sam. 12:11-12, 15:16b-17a, 16:21-23, 20:3, I Kings 3:1-2, 7:8-11, 13-47, 8:10-11, 65-66, 9:11-13, 15-24, 11:1b, 12:15, 21-24, 30, 32b,d-33, 13:1-33, 14:5, 12-18, 15:29b, 16:1-4, 7, 12, 23b-24, 28b, 29b, 32-34, 20:1-43, 21:1-16, 18b, 19b-20, 23, 25-29, 22:1-38, 51b, II Kings 1:2-17, 2:19-25, 3:1b, 4-27, 4:8-37, 42-44, 5:17-18, 19b-27, 6:17a, 18b, 20, 24-33, 7:1-20, 8:1-6, 9:21b, 25-26, 27b, 36-37, 10:1-10, 12-14, 17, 30-31, 35b, 36b, 13:1b, 6b-7, 9b, 10b, 13b, 14:14b, 16b, 23b, 25b-27, 15:8b, 12, 13b, 14b,d, 17b, 23b, 25b, 27b, 17:1b, 5b-6a, 13b,d, 18-21, 23-34, 41, 18:9-12, 31-33, 34b, 19:1-13, 20-34, 20:1-19, 21:13, 16, 23:16-20, 24:2-3a, 4a, 7, 13-14, 25:13-17).



Ruth is composed as an attack on Ezra’s policies regarding intermarriage with Non-Jews. The population is now around 250,000.



Job is composed from an Edomite tale in imitation of a Greek tragedy.



Temple at Elephantine destroyed. “Ark of the Covenant” moved to Tana Kirkos in Lake Tana in Ethiopia.*



 A disciple of the school of Ezra composes Ezra-Nehemiah and Chronicles. Joel and Esther are also composed.



Alexander the Great becomes king of Macedonia.



Alexander the Great conquers Judah/Judea.

Hellenistic Era


Alexander the Great dies.



Seleucus I returns to Babylon. Founding of Seleucid Empire.



The Instructions of Amenemopet is adapted and modified into the book of Proverbs beginning during the Exile in Babylonia and completed about this time. The Exiles also begin to adapt contemporaneous Egyptian love poetry and create the Song of Songs, which is finished at about this time. Letter of Jeremiah composed in Babylonia.



Ecclesiastes composed by a non-Hellenized Jew of Jerusalem.



Sirach composed. 



Antiochus IV Epiphanes becomes king of the Seleucid Empire



Antiochus IV Epiphanes attacks Jerusalem. Hasmonean revolt in Judea begins and is led by Mattathias ben Yochanan, father of Judah Maccabee.

Hasmonean Era


Mattathias dies. Judah Maccabee becomes leader of revolt against Antiochus.



Daniel is composed in Judea as a response to the massacres perpetrated by Antiochus IV Epiphanes. The Jewish festival of Hanukkah celebrates Judah Maccabee’s victory over the Seleucids and associated events that Jews regard as miraculous.



Tobit, Judith, and Baruch composed.



Simon Maccabee becomes prince of Judea.



1 Maccabees composed in Judea and 2 Maccabees and Book of Wisdom are composed in Alexandria.



3 Maccabees composed in Alexandria.



Birth of Herod the Great.


* Taken to Axum c. 330 C.E., see Hancock.

The Proverbs, of course, are not the work of Solomon, though several of them may have come from him; they owe something to Egyptian literature and Greek philosophy, and some Hellenized Alexandrian Jew probably put them together in the third or second century B.C.E. 



Pompey conquers Judea.



4 Maccabees composed in Alexandria.



Herod the Great becomes tetrarch of Galilee.



Antigonus II Mattathias becomes last Hasmonean king of Judea with Parthian support. Herod flees to Rome.



Herod appointed king by Rome.



Herod the Great captures Jerusalem and begins Herodian dynasty ruling over Palestine. Antigonus II beheaded. Book of Wisdom composed.



Herod begins co-regency with his sons. Herod Archelaus inherits part of his father’s kingdom ruling over Judea, Samaria, and Idumea; Herod Antipas inherits Galilee and Perea (and later has John the Baptist beheaded) and Herod Phillip inherits lands east of the Jordan.


Thursday 6 April* 1

Jesus is born during Passover. Herod initiates the “slaughter of the Innocents” before dying.

New Testament Era

26 C.E.

Pontius Pilate becomes governor of Judea.


Friday 1 April 33

Jesus crucified.



Paul converted to Christianity.



James is composed in Jerusalem by the brother of Jesus. Paul composes 1-2 Thessalonians and Galatians.



Paul composes 1 Corinthians.



Whilst in prison, Paul composes Philemon. He also composes 2 Corinthians after leaving for Macedonia.



Paul composes Romans while in Corinth.



Paul composes Philippians while in prison in Rome.



The Great Fire of Rome results in persecutions of Christians. Both Peter and Paul are executed.



The apostle John composes Revelation using many surviving prophecies of John the Baptist amidst the persecutions of Nero.



Titus destroys the Second Temple in Jerusalem.



Mark composed by a disciple of Peter.



Matthew is composed probably for a Jewish-Christian community. Jude, the brother of Jesus, composes Jude. 1 Peter is composed.



Luke composed by Paul’s companion. Hebrews composed by another of Paul’s companions. 2 Peter and Colossians are composed.


*John Pratt, Yet another Eclipse for Herod, The Planetarian, vol. 19 no. 4:8-14, December 1990.

Colin J. Humphrey and W. G. Waddington, Dating the Crucifixion, Nature vol. 306:743-46, 22/29 December 1983.